SPM Biology Form 4 Notes – Terminology and Concepts: Cell Structure and Cell Organisation (Part III)

by BerryBerryTeacher

in Berry Reference (Notes)

This is the penultimate post from Berry Berry Easy (3rd of 4) in the series of notes in Cell Structure and Cell Organisation. Before you all forget what is from the previous two posts, let us do a recap on part 2 which involvedorganelles, mitochondria for animals, chloroplast for plants and the uniqueness of cells. Do check out also the first post that contained Mitochondrion, Nucleus, Neucleolus, Neucleoplasm, Chromosomes, Ribosomes, Endoplasmic reticulum and Plasma membrane. So, do distinguish the difference between animal and plant cells.

SPM Form 4 – Terminology and Concepts: Cell Structure and Cell Organisation (Part III)

Neuron cell

Neuron cell

Organelles – (little organ) tiny structures inside a cell that perform specific functions for a cell. Example: mitochondria, lysosome and chloroplast.


  • Animal: High density at sperm cells (at middle piece to provide sufficient energy for motive power), flight muscle cells (bird / avian), liver cells, meristematic / meristemic cells (involve with cell division), kidney cells, heart muscle cells, brain cells.


  • Plant: High density at palisade mesophyll (leaf: below upper epidermis). It functions to trap sunlight to synthesise sugar during photosynthesis.

The Uniqueness of The Cell

A cell is unique:

  1. Specialisation
  2. Division of labour
  3. Coordination and integration

Example of specialisation of cells :

  • Animal – smooth muscle cell, neuron (nerve cell), white blood cell, red blood cell (erythrocyte), cheek cell (lining epithelial cell), sperm, ovum cell (the biggest cell in human)
  • Plant – palisade mesophyll cell, xylem, phloem, guard cell.

Do check out the final post in the series for SPM Form 4 Biology notes on Cell Structure and Cell Organisation.

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