SPM Chemistry Form 4 Notes – Periodic Table of Elements (Part 1)

by BerryBerryTeacher

in Berry Reference (Notes)

The Periodic Table (or more accurately, the Periodic Table of Elements) is something all SPM chemistry students love and hate. Maybe more hate than love at first, but usually more love than hate towards examination time.As all would know before even learning chemistry, it is a table to systematically classify and compare all elements and have found extensive usage in the field of chemistry and beyond.

The elegance of the periodic table has often been understated and often credited to Dmitri Mendeleev. However, there are more to it before Mendeleev and this first post on Periodic Table of Elements from Berry Berry Easy for SPM Chemistry Form 4 (SPM Kimia Tingkatan 4) attempts to present the precursor and successor to Mendeleev’s Periodic table in a nutshell.

Trivia: For those who studied SPM Chemistry many aeons ago, it was in Malay, and we call the Periodic Table of Elements as Jadual Berkala Unsur.

(Tips: Actually, this part is more for interest than actually being tested in exams. Typically, this subtopic is disregarded except for the occasional multiple choice questions in exams. However, a true chemistry student should know some history worth the salt of a true chemistry lover. If you love chemistry, you have a chance to do well in exams.)

SPM Chemistry Form 4 Notes – Periodic Table of Elements (Part 1)

Development of the Periodic Table

Periodic Table

Periodic Table

A) Antoine Lavoisier (1743 – 1794) – French chemist

  • Elements were classified into 4 groups
  • Limitation – some wrong information (light and heat were consider as elements

B) Johann Dobereiner (1780 – 1849) – German chemist

  • Elements were classified into groups named as triad (Triad Law – relationship between properties and atomic masses of the elements)
  • Limitation – few elements were classified

C) John Newlands (1837 – 1898) – British chemist

  • Elements were arranged horizontally in ascending order of their atomic masses and each row consisted of 7 elements (Law of Octaves – same properties were repeated at every eight element)
  • Limitation – obeyed by the first 17 elements only (from H to Ca)

D) Lothar Meyer (1830 – 1895) – German chemist

  • Properties of the elements were in a periodic pattern with their atomic masses
  • Similar chemical properties occupied the same relative positions on the curve

E) Dmitri Mendeleev (1834 – 1907) – Russian chemist

  • Elements were arranged in ascending order of their atomic masses
  • Elements with similar chemical properties were placed in a group
  • Gap for undiscovered elements
  • Prediction: gallium, scandium and germanium (discover later)
  • Separate groups for certain elements: transition elements
  • Meedeleev’s Periodic Table was used as a basis for the formation of the Periodic Table

F) H. J. G. Moseley (1887 – 1915) – British physicist

  • Elements were arranged horizontally in ascending order – proton numbers
  • Elements with the same number valence electrons – same group
  • 18 vertical columns – Group 1, Group 2, until Group 18
  • Alkali metal – Group 1
  • Alkaline earth metal – Group 2
  • Transition elements – Group 3 to Group 12
  • Halogen – Group 17
  • Noble gas – Group 18
  • Horizontal row of the elements – period
  • Period 1 – 2 elements
  • Period 2 and 3 – 8 elements
  • Period 4 and 5 – 18 elements
  • Period 6 – 32 elements
  • Period 7 – 27 elements
  • Lantanides – proton numbers 58 to 71
  • Actinides – proton numbers 90 to 103
  • Elements (Group 1, 2 and 13) – metal
  • Transition elements (Group 3 to 12) – metal
  • Elements (Group 15, 16 and 17) – non-metal
  • Carbon and silicon (Group 14) – non-metal

The next part, Part 2 of Berry Berry Easy’s Notes on Periodic Table of Elements for SPM Chemistry students will focus on the relationship between electron arrangement of the atom of an element to its group and period. It’s easy for a Form 5 student when they look back but rather difficult for a Form 4 student. So Form 4 students need to pay full attention when your teacher is teaching this part, or you can always refer back to Berry Berry Easy for our notes.

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April 16, 2012

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