SPM Chemistry Form 4 Notes – Chemical Bonds (Part 1)

by BerryBerryTeacher

in Berry Reference (Notes)

Chemical bond is the reason why  substances other than chemical elements exists.  It is an attraction between at least two atoms which then forms chemical substances. Hence this is the reason why there are more chemical substances in this planet than they are elements. This is a relatively easy subject but is very fundamental to chemistry that Berry Readers need to fully understand it, or else hard time follows in the next couple of years leading to SPM. As such, Berry Berry Easy will be sharing Part 1 of SPM Chemistry Form 4 notes on Chemical Bonds.

For Part 1, you’ll be learning about the formation of compounds, stability of noble gases, the types of chemical bonds and how they can form bonds. Make sure you fully understand this Part before moving on to other topics in Chemistry or even other parts in this series of notes.

[Tips: Although chemical bonds are drawn typically with two spheres and a rod connecting them (as shown in the figure below), it is important to understand now rather than later that, the rod (or chemical bond) is not a physical object, but rather more like an 'effect' to allow atoms to come together to form substances. The formed substances each will have its own physico-chemical properties due to the type of atoms and bond types involved.]

SPM Chemistry Form 4 Notes – Chemical Bonds (Part 1)

Formation of Compounds

  • Compounds – different elements that chemically bonded together
  • Octet electron arrangement – electron arrangement of an atom where the outermost occupied shell is filled with eight valence electrons
  • Duplet electron arrangement – electron arrangement of an atom where a single shell filled with two valence electrons

Example:

Compound water is hydrogen and oxygen atoms are chemically bonded together.

Stability of Noble Gases

  • Atom of noble gas does not gain, lose nor share electrons with other atoms.
  • Noble gas atoms do not combine with atoms of other elements to form compounds or with each other to form molecules.
  • Noble gases are chemically unreactive.
  • Noble gases exist as monoatomic.

Chemical Bonds

Chemical Bond

Chemical Bond

Types of chemical bonds:

  • ionic bonds (metal + non-metal)
  • covalent bonds (non-metal + non-metal)

Atoms of other elements can achieve the stable octet electron arrangement by

  • transfer of electrons
  • sharing of electrons

The next part, Part 2 of SPM Chemistry Form 4 notes on Chemical Bonds from Berry Berry Easy will be on ionic bonds, ionic compounds and the relatively difficult task of predicting the formula of ionic compounds.

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