SPM Chemistry Form 4 Students take note (taking note mentally and also copying notes), this post on Berry Berry Easy is on Part 2 of SPM Chemistry Form 4 Notes on Periodic Table of Elements. This is the proper start of the ‘meat’ in this chapter as the history in Part 1 is just a ‘taster’. Students will get the first ‘feel’ of chemistry with the periodic table. In this part, you’ll learn about electron arrangement of atoms of an element, and the physico-chemical properties and uses of noble gases (Group 18 elements).
(Tips: Draw out the electron arrangements of atoms of elements in a group side by side on a piece of paper. Then compare them. Then draw it again but put a mockup periodic table beside your drawing. This way, you’ll have a mental picture of the electron arranngements, its position in the periodic table and their interconnectivity. This tip is provided by a top student during his study days, very effective among Berry Berry Teacher’s students)
SPM Chemistry Form 4 Notes – Periodic Table of Elements (Part 2)
Relationship between the electron arrangement of the atom of an element to its group and period
- The number of valence electrons determines the chemical properties of elements (group).
- Elements in the same group have the same number of valence electrons.
- The number of shells occupied with electrons in an atom determines the period number of an element.
|Group 1||Group 2|
|Period 2||Lithium / Li / 2.1||Beryllium / Be / 2.2|
|Period 3||Sodium / Na / 2.8.1||Magnesium / Mg / 2.8.2|
|Period 4||Potassium / K / 22.214.171.124||Calcium / Ca / 126.96.36.199|
Group 18 elements
- Group 18 elements are known as noble gases (inert chemically and chemically unreactive).
- Atomic radius (atomic size) – increases (going down the group)
- Helium atom has only one filled electron shell which is 2 electrons (duplet electron arrangement)
- The outermost shell of the atoms (Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe and Rn) have 8 electrons (octet electron arrangement)
- Atoms of noble gases do not release electrons, accept electrons or share electrons.
|Element||Electron arrangement of atom|
|Helium / He||2|
|Neon / Ne||2.8|
|Argon / Ar||2.8.8|
|Krypton / Kr||188.8.131.52|
|Xenon / Xe||184.108.40.206.8|
|Radon / Rn||220.127.116.11.18.8|
- Monoatomic gases
- Colourless gas at room temperature
- Insoluble in water
- Cannot conduct electricity
- Poor conductors of heat
- Melting point and boiling point increases (going down the group) – atomic size increases and force of attraction between atoms of each element become stronger
- Density of element increases (going down the group)
- Chemically inert / not reactive / non-flammable – do not gain, lose or share electrons with other elements
- Helium – airships, weather balloons, cool down metals
- Neon – advertising light bulb
- Argon – welding, filled light bulbs
- Krypton – used in laser, filled photographic flash lamps
- Radon – treat cancer
The next part, Part 3 in this series of notes from Berry Berry Easy on the Periodic Table of Elements for SPM Chemistry Form 4 students will be focused on Group 1 elements such as Lithium, Sodium, Potassium, Rubidium, Caesium and Francium. They might be ‘volatile’ but extremely important in your studies. So stay tuned.