SPM Chemistry Form 4 Notes – Periodic Table of Elements (Part 2)

by BerryBerryTeacher

in Berry Reference (Notes)

SPM Chemistry Form 4 Students take note (taking note mentally and also copying notes), this post on Berry Berry Easy is on Part 2 of SPM Chemistry Form 4 Notes on Periodic Table of Elements. This is the proper start of the ‘meat’ in this chapter as the history in Part 1 is just a ‘taster’. Students will get the first ‘feel’ of chemistry with the periodic table. In this part, you’ll learn about electron arrangement of atoms of an element, and the physico-chemical properties and uses of noble gases (Group 18 elements).

(Tips: Draw out the electron arrangements of atoms of elements in a group side by side on a piece of paper. Then compare them. Then draw it again but put a mockup periodic table beside your drawing. This way, you’ll have a mental picture of the electron arranngements, its position in the periodic table and their interconnectivity. This tip is provided by a top student during his study days, very effective among Berry Berry Teacher’s students)

SPM Chemistry Form 4 Notes – Periodic Table of Elements (Part 2)

Relationship between the electron arrangement of the atom of an element to its group and period

  • The number of valence electrons determines the chemical properties of elements (group).
  • Elements in the same group have the same number of valence electrons.
  • The number of shells occupied with electrons in an atom determines the period number of an element.
  Group 1 Group 2
Period 2 Lithium / Li / 2.1 Beryllium / Be / 2.2
Period 3 Sodium / Na / 2.8.1 Magnesium / Mg / 2.8.2
Period 4 Potassium / K / 2.8.8.1 Calcium / Ca / 2.8.8.2

Group 18 elements

Monoatomic gas

Monoatomic gas

  • Group 18 elements are known as noble gases (inert chemically and chemically unreactive).
  • Atomic radius (atomic size) – increases (going down the group)
  • Helium atom has only one filled electron shell which is 2 electrons (duplet electron arrangement)
  • The outermost shell of the atoms (Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe and Rn) have 8 electrons (octet electron arrangement)
  • Atoms of noble gases do not release electrons, accept electrons or share electrons.
Element Electron arrangement of atom
Helium / He 2
Neon / Ne 2.8
Argon / Ar 2.8.8
Krypton / Kr 2.8.18.8
Xenon / Xe 2.8.18.18.8
Radon / Rn 2.8.18.32.18.8

Physical properties

  • Monoatomic gases
  • Colourless gas at room temperature
  • Insoluble in water
  • Cannot conduct electricity
  • Poor conductors of heat
  • Melting point and boiling point increases (going down the group) – atomic size increases and force of attraction between atoms of each element become stronger
  • Density of element increases (going down the group)

Chemical properties

  • Chemically inert / not reactive / non-flammable – do not gain, lose or share electrons with other elements

Uses

  • Helium – airships, weather balloons, cool down metals
  • Neon – advertising light bulb
  • Argon – welding, filled light bulbs
  • Krypton – used in laser, filled photographic flash lamps
  • Radon – treat cancer

The next part, Part 3 in this series of notes from Berry Berry Easy on the Periodic Table of Elements for SPM Chemistry Form 4 students will be focused on Group 1 elements such as Lithium, Sodium, Potassium, Rubidium, Caesium and Francium. They might be ‘volatile’ but extremely important in your studies. So stay tuned.

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June 1, 2011
June 1, 2011

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