Berry List of Biology Experiments (PEKA) Form 4 (Part 6)

by BerryBerryTeacher

in Berry Experiment (Experiments & PEKA)

This post is the list of PEKA experiments for SPM Biology Form 4 from Berry Berry Easy. It is advisable that students read all of these experiments from Chapter 6: Nutrition before heading in so as to be better prepared. So do read this post.

Berry List of Biology Experiments (PEKA) Form 4 (Part 6)

peka-spm-biology-chapter-6

Chapter 6 – Nutrition

List of PEKA experiments:

  1. Determining the energy value in food samples
  2. Testing for the presence of starch, reducing sugar, non-reducing sugar, protein and lipid in food samples
  3. Determining the vitamin C content in various fruit juices
  4. Planning and conducting an experiment to study enzyme action on starch
  5. Planning and conducting an experiment to study the enzyme action on a protein food sample
  6. Examining slides of the cross section of the small intestine
  7. Studying the movement of substances through the Visking tubing
  8. Studying the effects of macronutrient deficiency in plants
  9. Studying a cross-sectional model of a leaf
  10. Investigating the adaptation of plants to carry out photosynthesis with respect to the distribution of stomata and chloroplasts
  11. Investigating the effect of light intensity on the rate of photosynthesis
  12. Planting project in the science resource garden or school compound
  13. Visiting relevant agencies to study ways to improve the quality and quantity of food production
  14. Vegetable planting project
  15. Preparing a portfolio on the technological development of food processing
Number Activity 6.1 (Observation)
Pg. 61
Title Determining the energy value in food samples
Aim / Objective of the Study To determine the energy value in food samples
Material
  • Peanut (whole)
  • Plasticine
  • Cotton wool
  • Distilled water
Apparatus
  • Boiling tube
  • Thermometer (0 – 100˚C)
  • Pin (5 – 8 cm)
  • Bunsen burner
  • Retort stand and clamp
  • Wind shield
  • Electronic balance
Technique used
  • Measure and determine the energy value in food samples (groundnut)
  • Measure the mass of the food samples by using electronic balance

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Number Modify from Activity 6.1 (Observation)
Pg. 61
Title Determining the energy value in food samples
Aim / Objective of the Study To determine the energy value in food samples
Problem Statement Which food sample has a higher energy value?
Hypothesis Cashew nut/ Walnut has a higher energy value that goundnut
Variables
  • Manipulated variable: Type of food sample
  • Responding variable: Energy value of food samples
  • Fixed variable: Mass of water and mass of food sample
Material
  • Fresh peanut (whole)
  • Fresh cashew nut / Fresh walnut (whole)
  • Plasticine
  • Cotton wool
  • Distilled water
  • Matches
Apparatus
  • Boiling tube
  • Thermometer (0 – 100˚C)
  • Pin (5 – 8 cm)
  • Bunsen burner
  • Retort stand and clamp
  • Wind shield
  • Electronic balance
Technique used
  • Measure and determine the energy value in different food samples
  • Compare the energy value in different food samples (groundnut and cashew nut / walnut)
  • Measure the mass of the different food samples by using electronic balance

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Number Activity 6.2 (Observation)
Pg. 63
Title Testing for the presence of starch, reducing sugar, non-reducing sugar, protein and lipid in food samples
Aim / Objective of the Study Determine and test the presence of starch, reducing sugar, non-reducing sugar, protein and lipid in food samples
Problem Statement What is the nutrient content for all the food samples?
Hypothesis
  • Starch suspension containing starch
  • Glucose contains reducing sugar
  • Sucrose solution contains non-reducing sugar
  • Albumen (egg-white) suspension contains proteins
  • Vegetable oil contains lipid
Material
  • Starch suspension (A)
  • 5% glucose solution (B)
  • 1% sucrose solution (C)
  • Albumen suspension (D)
  • Vegetable oil (E)
  • Iodine solution
  • Benedict’s solution
  • Sodium hydrogen carbonate powder
  • 20% sodium hydroxide solution
  • Hydroxide acid
  • 1% copper(II) sulphate solution
Apparatus
  • Test tubes
  • Test tube holders
  • Test tube rack
  • 250 ml beakers
  • Dropper
  • Bunsen burner
  • Tripod stand
  • Wire gauze
  • Filter paper
Technique used Test and determine the presence of starch, reducing sugar, non-reducing sugar, protein and lipid in food samples.

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Number Activity 6.3 (Experiment)
Pg. 65
Title Determining the vitamin C content in various fruit juices
Aim / Objective of the Study To determine the vitamin C content in various fruit juices
Problem Statement Do different types of fruit juices contain similar amounts of vitamin C?
Hypothesis Lime juice contains a higher concentration of vitamin C compared to pineapple juice and orange juice.
Variables
  • Manipulated variable: Types of fruit juices
  • Responding variable: Volume of fruit juice needed to decolourise DCPIP solution
  • Fixed variable: Volume of DCPIP solution and standard concentration of ascorbic acid solution
Material
  • 1.0% dichlorophenolindophenol (DCPIP) solution
  • 0.1% ascorbic acid solution
  • Freshly prepared lime juice
  • Freshly prepared pineapple juice
  • Freshly prepared orange juice
Apparatus
  • Specimen tubes
  • 1 ml syringe
  • 5 ml syringes with needles
  • 50 ml beakers
  • Gauze cloth
  • Knife / Scalpel
Technique used
  • Measure and determine the volume of standard vitamin C solution needed to decolourise of a fixed volume of DCPIP.
  • Measure and determine the volume of juice needed to decolourise the same volume of DCPIP.
  • Calculate the vitamin C content of juice by comparing it with the standard vitamin C solution.

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Number Activity 6.4 (Experiment)
Pg. 67
Title Planning and conducting an experiment to study enzyme action on starch
Aim / Objective of the Study To study enzyme action on starch
Problem Statement How does the enzyme in saliva act on starch?
Hypothesis The enzyme is saliva digest starch into a reducing sugar / The enzyme in saliva hydrolyses starch into a reducing sugar
Variables
  • Manipulated variable: Absence or presence of salivary amylase and starch
  • Responding variable: Presence of reducing sugar
  • Fixed variable: Temperature at 37˚C, starch concentration and volume of mixture
Material
  • 1% starch suspension
  • Benedict’s solution
  • Iodine solution
  • Saliva suspension
  • Distilled water
Apparatus
  • 10 ml pipette
  • 500 ml beaker
  • Test tubes
  • Test tube holder
  • Test tube rack
  • Thermometer
  • Droppers
  • Glass rod
  • White tile
  • Bunsen burner
  • Tripod stand
  • Wire gauze
Technique used
  • Confirmation test for the presence of starch using iodine solution
  • Confirmation test for the presence of reducing sugar using Benedict’s solution

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Number Activity 6.5 (Experiment)
Pg. 68
Title Planning and conducting an experiment to study the enzyme action on a protein food sample
Introduction
  • Albumen does not dissolve completely in water
  • Albumen suspension is milky in nature. After albumen is fully digested, the suspension becomes clear
  • Pepsin requires an acidic pH of about 2 to act at maximum rate
Aim / Objective of the Study To study the enzyme action on a protein food sample
Problem Statement How does the enzyme acts on protein?
Hypothesis
  • The test tube contains albumen and pepsin solution becomes clear at the end of the experiment
  • An acidic medium is needed for protein digestion by pepsin
Variables
  • Manipulated variable: Absence or presence of pepsin in albumen
  • Responding variable: Cloudy or clear (clarity of contents) albumen suspension after 20 minutes
  • Fixed variable: Concentration and volume of albumen, concentration and volume of pepsin (enzyme), concentration of hydrochloric acid, surrounding temperature at 37˚C
Material
  • Albumen (egg-white) suspension
  • Dilute hydrochloric acid
  • Pepsin suspension
  • Distilled water
Apparatus
  • 10 ml pipette
  • 500 ml beaker
  • Test tubes
  • Test tube rack
  • Droppers
  • Thermometer
  • Stopwatch
  • Water bath (Bunsen burner, tripod stand and wire gauze)
Technique used Observe albumen digestion under the presence or the absence of pepsin and hydrochloric acid.

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Number Activity 6.6 (Observation)
Pg. 70
Title Examining slides of the cross section of the small intestine
Aim / Objective of the Study To examine and study the slides of the cross section of the small intestine
Material
  • Slides of the cross section of the small intestine
Apparatus
  • Microscope
Technique used Observe the slides of the cross section of the small intestine

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Number Activity 6.7 (Observation)
Pg. 71
Title Studying the movement of substances through the Visking tubing
Aim / Objective of the Study
Problem Statement What substances can move across the Visking tubing?
Hypothesis Small molecules can move across the Visking tubing
Variables
  • Manipulated variable: Contents of the Visking tubing
  • Responding variable: Change in colour of water sample in iodine test and Benedict’s test
  • Fixed variable: Temperature of water bath (37˚C), volume of solution
Material
  • 1% starch suspension
  • 1% glucose solution
  • Iodine solution
  • Benedict’s solution
  • Visking tubing
  • Thread
  • Distilled water
Apparatus
  • Boiling tube
  • Test tubes
  • 10 ml syringe
  • Pipette
  • A pair of scissors
  • Water bath (Bunsen burner, tripod stand and wire gauze)
Technique used
  • Confirmation test for the presence of starch using iodine solution
  • Confirmation test for the presence of reducing sugar using Benedict’s solution

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Number Activity 6.8 (Experiment)
Pg. 72
Title Studying the effects of macronutrient deficiency in plants
Aim / Objective of the Study To study the effects of macronutrient deficiency in plants
Problem Statement What are the effects of macronutrient deficiency in plants? / Do macronutrient  deficiency have any effects on plant growth and development?
Hypothesis
  • Plant grows healthily in a complete Knop’s solution
  • Macronutrient deficiencies affect plant growth and development.
Variables
  • Manipulated variable: Components of minerals in culture solution
  • Responding variable: Growth of the seedling / Condition of the plants
  • Fixed variable: Volume and concentration of solution, size and type of maize seedlings, amount of air that is pumped into the jar, amount of sunlight, surrounding temperature
Material
  • Maize seedlings
  • Potassium nitrate (KNO3)
  • Potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KH2PO4)
  • Magnesium sulphate (MgSO4)
  • Calcium nitrate (Ca(NO3)2)
  • Ferum(III) phosphate (FePO4)
  • Cotton wool
  • Black paper
  • Distilled water
Apparatus
  • Glass jars
  • Rubber bungs with holes
  • Straight glass tubes to fit into the holes of the rubber bungs
  • L-shaped delivery tubes to the connected to a vacuum pump
  • Knife
Technique used
  • Observe the effects of different deficiencies on young maize seedling.
  • Maize seedling are under identical conditions of light, temperature and moisture.

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Number Activity 6.9 (Observation)
Pg. 73
Title Studying a cross-sectional model of a leaf
Aim / Objective of the Study To study a cross-sectional model of a leaf
Material
  • Cross-sectional model of a leaf
Apparatus -
Technique used Observe the cross-sectional model of a leaf and identify the different part of the leaf

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Number Activity 6.10 (Observation)
Pg. 74
Title Investigating the adaptation of plants to carry out photosynthesis with respect to the distribution of stomata and chloroplasts
Aim / Objective of the Study To investigate the adaptation of plants to carry out photosynthesis with respect to the distribution of stomata and chloroplasts
Material
  • Hibiscus leaf
  • Sprig of Hydrilla sp.
  • Water lily leaf
  • Cactus (Opuntia sp.)
  • Nail varnish
Apparatus
  • Magnifying lens
  • A pair of forceps
  • Microscope slides
  • Cover slips
  • Light microscope
Technique used Observe the distribution of stomata and chloroplast in plants from different habitats

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Number Activity 6.11 (Experiment)
Pg. 76
Title Investigating the effect of light intensity on the rate of photosynthesis
Aim / Objective of the Study To investigate the effect of light intensity on the rate of photosynthesis
Problem Statement How does light intensity affect the rate of photosynthesis?
Hypothesis The higher the light intensity, the higher the rate of photosynthesis
Variables
  • Manipulated variable: Distance between light source and plant
  • Responding variable: Number of bubbles released in five minutes (rate of photosynthesis)
  • Fixed variable: Type and size of plant, percentage of sodium hydrogen carbonate solution and voltage of bulb
Material
  • A few sprigs of Hydrilla sp.
  • 1% sodium hydrogen carbonate solution
  • Plasticine
  • Distilled water
Apparatus
  • Light source (60 W bulb)
  • 500 ml beaker
  • Test tube
  • Glass filter funnel
  • Stopwatch
  • Thermometer
  • Meter rule
  • Razor
Technique used Count the number of gas bubbles released in five minute with a stopwatch

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Number Activity 6.12 (Project)
Pg. 77
Title Planting project in the science resource garden or school compound
Aim / Objective of the Study To start a planting project in the science resource garden or school compound

  • My Ecogarden
  • My Herbal Garden
  • My Science Garden
Technique used Find and label the common names and scientific names of plants

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Number Activity 6.13 (Field study)
Pg. 78
Title Visiting relevant agencies to study ways to improve the quality and quantity of food production
Aim / Objective of the Study To visit relevant agencies to study ways to improve the quality and quantity of food production

  • Institute of Agriculture Research and Development of Malaysia (MARDI)
  • Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB)
  • Agriculture Department
  • Fisheries Department
Technique used Collect information and carry out research on diversity food production and improve the quality and quantity of food production

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Number Activity 6.14 (Project)
Pg. 78
Title Vegetable planting project
Aim / Objective of the Study To start with a vegetable planting project
Material A) Hydroponics technique

  • Vegetable seeds
  • Nutrient solution

B) Planting vegetable in soil

  • Vegetable seeds
  • Fertiliser
Apparatus A) Hydroponics technique

  • Plastics tray
  • Gravel or clean sand
  • Fork
  • Hydroponics set

B) Planting vegetable in soil

  • Spade
  • Watering can
Technique used
  • Observe and prepare a log book on the height of the growing seedling and time taken for the seedling to reach flowering and fruiting stages.
  • Write report on the project.

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Number Activity 6.15 (Project)
Pg. 80
Title Preparing a portfolio on the technological development of food processing
Aim / Objective of the Study To study and prepare a portfolio on the technological development of food processing
Material
  • Newspapers
  • Magazines
  • Reference books
  • The Internet
  • Food labels
Apparatus -
Technique used Prepare and write a portfolio on the technological development of food processing to exhibit in school

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