Berry List of Biology Experiments (PEKA) Form 4 (Part 8)

by BerryBerryTeacher

in Berry Experiment (Experiments & PEKA)

This post is the list of PEKA experiments for SPM Biology Form 4 from Berry Berry Easy. It is advisable that students read all of these experiments from Chapter 8: Dynamic Ecosystem before heading in so as to be better prepared. So do read this post.

Berry List of Biology Experiments (PEKA) Form 4 (Part 8 )

peka-spm-biology-chapter-8

Chapter 8 – Dynamic Ecosystem

List of PEKA experiments:

  1. Investigating the abiotic and biotic components in an ecosystem
  2. Investigating the feeding relationships and interactions between biotic components
  3. Studying the intraspecific and interspecific competitions in plants
  4. Studying the processes of colonisation and succession in a mangrove swamp
  5. Investigating the distribution of plants (Mimosa pudica) using the quadrat sampling technique
  6. Estimating the population size of garden snails using capture, mark, release and recapture technique
  7. Studying the relationship of population distribution of an organism with the changes of an abiotic factor
  8. Collecting stamps of local plants and animal
  9. Creating awareness of biodiversity of an ecosystem
  10. Classifying various types of microorganisms
  11. Studying the effects of temperature, pH, light intensity and nutrients on the activity of yeast
  12. Preserving and conserving various living things around us
Number Activity 8.1 (Field study)
Pg. 103
Title Investigating the abiotic and biotic components in an ecosystem
Aim / Objective of the Study To invstigate the abiotic and biotic components in an ecosystem
Material
  • Dry cobalt paper
  • pH paper
  • A bottle of universal indicator
Apparatus
  • Thermometer
  • Photometer
  • Hand lens
  • Towels
  • Test tubes
  • Pen
  • Notebook
Technique used
  • Measure the abiotic components which include the pH of the soil and water, light intensity, humidity and topography.
  • Identify abiotic components of the ecosystem, animals and plants by using hand lens if necessary.
  • Observe the physical features and topography of the ecosystem.

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Number Activity 8.2 (Field study)
Pg. 104
Title Investigating the feeding relationships and interactions between biotic components
Aim / Objective of the Study To investigate the feeding relationships and interactions between biotic components
Material
  • Digital camera (optional)
Apparatus
  • Hand lens
  • Pen
  • Notebook
Technique used
  • Identify the biotic components of the ecosystem.
  • Observe what the organisms feed on.
  • Observe and identify the interactions between the biotic components.
  • Observe any adaptation that can be found on the plants and animals
  • Classify all organisms into tropic levels
  • Construct food chains and construct a pyramid of numbers
  • Construct a food web based on the ecosystem.
  • Prepare a folio on this field study.

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Number Activity 8.3 (Experiment)
Pg. 108
Title Studying the intraspecific and interspecific competitions in plants
Aim / Objective of the Study To study the intraspecific and interspecific competitions in plants
Problem Statement How do intraspecific and interspecific competitions affect the growth of maize and rice plants?
Hypothesis Intraspecific competition occurs between plants of the same species. Interspecific competition occurs between plants of different species. / The greater the competition among the seedlings, the greater the effect on the height of the seedlings.
Variables
  • Manipulated variable: Types of seedlings
  • Responding variable: Dry mass of seedlings / Height of seedling
  • Fixed variable: Quantity and types of garden soil, amount of water, intensity of sunlight, distance between each seedling and number of seedlings
Material
  • Three seedling trays (2 m x 1 m each) with garden soil
  • A packet of maize seeds
  • A packet of paddy seeds
  • Distilled water
Apparatus
  • Ruler
  • Oven
  • Compression balance
  • Spade
  • Waterproof paint
  • Paintbrush
Technique used Weight the dry mass of seedling with an electronic balance / Measure the height of seedling with a ruler

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Number Activity 8.4 (Field study)
Pg. 109
Title Studying the processes of colonisation and succession in a mangrove swamp
Aim / Objective of the Study To study the processes of colonisation and succession in a mangrove swamp
Material -
Apparatus
  • Pen
  • Notebook
  • A pair of binocular
  • Analogue / Digital camera (optional)
  • Worksheet
Technique used
  • Identify the various species of plants and animals and take note the characteristics of the leaves, flowers, fruits and roots.
  • Identify the pioneer species and the successor species.
  • Identify the adaptive characteristics of the pioneer species and successor species in the habitat.
  • Identify the niche, community and population in the habitat
  • Investigate the process of colonisation and process of succession in the habitat.

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Number Activity 8.5 (Field study)
Pg. 111
Title Investigating the distribution of plants (Mimosa pudica) using the quadrat sampling technique
Aim / Objective of the Study To investigate the distribution of plants using the quadrat sampling technique
Material
  • String
  • Nails
Apparatus
  • A quadrat measuring 1 m x 1 m
  • Pen
  • Notebook
Technique used Quadrat sampling technique

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Number Activity 8.6 (Field study)
Pg. 113
Title Estimating the population size of garden snails using capture, mark, release and recapture technique
Aim / Objective of the Study To estimate the population size of garden snails using capture, mark, release and recapture technique
Material
  • A bottle of Indian ink / A non-poisonous and waterproof ink
Apparatus
  • Hammer
  • Paintbrush
  • Pen
  • Notebook
Technique used Capture, mark, release and recapture technique

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Number Activity 8.7 (Experiment)
Pg. 114
Title Studying the relationship of population distribution of an organism with the changes of an abiotic factor
Aim To study the relationship of population distribution of an organism with the changes of an abiotic factor
Introduction Pleurococcus sp. is a unicellular green alga found on the bark of trees. The population distribution of Pleurococcus sp.is affected by abiotic factors such as humidity, temperature, light intensity and aspect.
Objective of the Study To investigate the effect of light intensity on the population distribution of Pleurococcus sp. in its habitat.
Problem Statement What is the effect of light intensity on the population distribution of Pleurococcus sp.?
Hypothesis The population distribution of Pleurococcus sp. is highest when there is optimum light intensity
Variables
  • Manipulated variable: Light intensity
  • Responding variable: Total surface are covered by Pleurococcus sp.
  • Fixed variable: Temperature, pH and humidity
Material
  • Paper
Apparatus
  • Quadrat measuring 10 cm x 10 cm
  • A compass
  • Pen
  • Notebook
Technique used Quadrat sampling (estimate the total surface area covered by Pleurococcus sp.)

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Number Activity 8.8 (Project)
Pg. 115
Title Collecting stamps of local plants and animals
Aim / Objective of the Study To collect stamps of local plants and animals
Material
  • Stamps
  • Manila cards
  • The Internet
  • Printed material
Apparatus
  • Marker pen
  • Paper
Technique used
  • Find common name of each plant or animals shown on the stamps
  • Determine the scientific name of each plant or animals shown on the stamps according to the Linnaeus binomial system

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Number Activity 8.9 (Field trip)
Pg. 116
Title Creating awareness of biodiversity of an ecosystem
Aim To create awareness of biodiversity of an ecosystem
Objective of the Study Visit and carry out this field trip:

  • National parks: Taman Negara, Endau-Rompin National Park, Bako National Park
  • Forest reserves: Kenong Rimba Reserve, FRIM (Forest Research Institute of Malaysia)
  • Wildlife conservation centres: Sepilok Orang Utan Rehabilitation Centre, Bota Kanan River Terrapin Wildlife Conservation Centre, Sungkai Sambar Deer, Pheasant Wildlife Reserve, Sungai Dusun Rhino Sanctuary, Kuala Gandah Elephant Centre
  • Nature parks: Royal Belum State Park, Kuala Selangor Nature Park
  • Mangrove swamps: Langkawi Mangrove Swamps
Material
  • Worksheet
Apparatus
  • Pen
  • Notebook
  • A pair of binoculars
  • An analogue / Digital camera (optional)
Technique used
  • Gather information on various types of animals and plants
  • Aware of the surroundings and the richness of the biodiversity in the ecosystem
  • Prepare a scrapbook

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Number Activity 8.10 (Observation)
Pg. 118
Title Classifying various types of microorganisms
Aim / Objective of the Study To classify various types of microorganisms
Material
  • Prepared slides of different types of microorganisms
  • Charts of microorganisms
  • Photomicrographs of protozoa, algae, fungi, bacteria and viruses
Apparatus
  • Microscope
Technique used Observe and study the basic characteristics of protozoa, algae, fungi, bacteria and viruses. Group these microorganisms.

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Number Activity 8.11 (Experiment)
Pg. 119
Title Studying the effects of temperature, pH, light intensity and nutrients on the activity of yeast
Aim To study the effects of temperature, pH, light intensity and nutrients on the activity of yeast.
Objective of the Study A) To study the effect of temperature on the activity of yeast.
Problem Statement What is the effect of temperature on the activity of yeast?
Hypothesis The activity of yeast is optimal at 37˚C
Variables
  • Manipulated variable: Temperature of the water bath
  • Responding variable: Height of the coloured liquid in the manometer
  • Fixed variable: Volume of yeast suspension, pH, light intensity and time taken for the activity of yeast
Material
  • Yeast suspension (4 g of yeast in 100 cm3 of glucose solution)
  • Coloured liquid
  • Ice cubes
Apparatus
  • Boiling tubes
  • Beakers
  • Measuring cylinders
  • Glass tubes
  • Thermometers
  • Clips
  • Rubber stoppers
  • Rubber tubing
  • Manometer tubes
  • Strings
  • Ruler
  • Stopwatch
  • Water bath (Bunsen burner, tripod stand and wire gauze)
Technique used Measure and record the different heights of coloured liquid in the manometer with a ruler.
Objective of the Study B) To study the effect of pH on the activity of yeast.
Problem Statement How does pH affect the activity of yeast? / What is the effect of different pH values in the activity of yeast?
Hypothesis The activity of yeast is optimum in an acidic medium.
Variables
  • Manipulated variable: pH
  • Responding variable: Height of the coloured liquid in the manometer
  • Fixed variable: Volume of yeast suspension, light intensity, temperature and time taken
Material
  • Yeast suspension (4 g of yeast in 100 cm3 of glucose solution)
  • 0.1 mol dm-3 hydrochloric acid
  • 0.01 mol dm-3 hydrochloric acid
  • 0.1 mol dm-3 sodium hydroxide solutions
  • 0.01 mol dm-3 sodium hydroxide solutions
  • Coloured liquid
  • pH paper
  • distilled water
Apparatus
  • Boiling tubes
  • Beakers
  • Measuring cylinders
  • Glass tubes
  • Clips
  • Rubber stoppers
  • Rubber tubing
  • Manometer tubes
  • Strings
  • Ruler
  • Stopwatch
  • Retort stand
Technique used Measure and record the different heights of coloured liquid in the manometer with a ruler.
Objective of the Study C) To study the effect of light intensity on the activity of yeast.
Problem Statement How does the intensity of light affect the activity of yeast? / What is the effect of light intensity on the activity of yeast?
Hypothesis The activity of yeast is higher at a lower intensity of light. / The lower the light intensity, the higher the activity of yeast.
Variables
  • Manipulated variable: Intensity of light
  • Responding variable: Height of coloured liquid in the manometer
  • Fixed variable: Volume of yeast suspension, pH, temperature and time taken
Material
  • Yeast suspension (4 g of yeast in 100 cm3 of glucose solution)
  • Coloured liquid
Apparatus
  • Light bulb (60W)
  • Boiling tubes
  • Beakers
  • Measuring cylinders
  • Glass tubes
  • Clips
  • Rubber stoppers
  • Rubber tubing
  • Manometer tubes
  • Strings
  • Ruler
  • Stopwatch
  • Retort stand
Technique used Measure and record the different heights of coloured liquid in the manometer with a ruler.
Objective of the Study D) To study the effect of nutrients on the activity of yeast.
Problem Statement How do nutrients affect the activity of yeast? / What is the effect of nutrients on the activity of yeast?
Hypothesis The concentration of nutrients affects the activity of yeast. / The higher the concentration of nutrients, the higher the activity of yeast.
Variables
  • Manipulated variable: Concentration of nutrients
  • Responding variable: Height of coloured liquid in the manometer
  • Fixed variable: Volume of yeast suspension, pH, light intensity and temperature
Material
  • Dry yeast
  • 5% glucose solution
  • 10% glucose solution
  • 15% glucose solution
  • Distilled water
Apparatus
  • Boiling tubes
  • Beakers
  • Measuring cylinders
  • Glass tubes
  • Clips
  • Rubber stoppers
  • Rubber tubing
  • Manometer tubes
  • Strings
  • Stopwatch
  • Retort stand
Technique used Measure and record the different heights of coloured liquid in the manometer with a ruler.

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Number Activity 8.12 (Project)
Pg. 124
Title Preserving and conserving various living things around us
Aim / Objective of the Study To preserve and conserve various living things around us
Material
  • Printed materials
  • Newspapers
  • Magazines
  • The Internet
Apparatus -
Technique used Carry out activities to learn more about the important of biodiversity and ideas to preserve and conserve various living things.

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