Berry List of Chemistry Experiments (PEKA) Form 4 (Part 3)

by BerryBerryTeacher

in Berry Experiment (Experiments & PEKA)

This post is the list of PEKA experiments for SPM Chemistry Form 4 from Berry Berry Easy. Please familiarise with all these experiments from Form 4 Chemistry Chapter 4: Periodic Table of Elements before conducting them so as to be better prepared. The list of experiments are as below:

Berry List of Chemistry Experiments (PEKA) Form 4 (Part 3)

peka-spm-chemistry-chapter-4

Chapter 4 – Periodic Table of Elements

List of PEKA experiments:

  1. Chemical properties of lithium, sodium and potassium
  2. Chemical properties of Group 17 elements
  3. Properties of the oxides of elements in Period 3
Number Experiment 4.1
Pg. 35
Title Chemical properties of lithium, sodium and potassium
Aim To investigate the chemical properties of lithium, sodium and potassium
Problem Statement How does the reactivity of Group 1 elements change when they react with water and oxygen gas, O2?
Hypothesis When going down Group 1, alkali metals become reactive in their reactions with water
Apparatus
  • Water troughs
  • Small knife
  • Forceps
  • Gas jars
  • Gas jar spoons
  • Gas jar covers
Material
  • Small pieces of lithium, sodium and potassium
  • Filter paper
  • Distilled water
  • Red litmus paper
  • Three gas jars filled with oxygen gas, O2
Variables
  • Manipulated variable: Different types of alkali metals
  • Responding variable: Reactivity of metals
  • Controlled / Fixed variable: Water, size of metals
Operational Definition An alkali metal that reacts more vigorously with water is more reactive metal

===============================================

Number Experiment 4.2
Pg. 39
Title Chemical properties of Group 17 elements
Aim To investigate the chemical properties of Group 17 elements

(A) Reactions of halogens with water

(B) Reactions of halogens with iron

(C) Reactions of halogens with sodium hydroxide, NaOH solution

Problem Statement How do halogens react with water, iron and sodium hydroxide, NaOH solution?
Hypothesis (A) Reactions of halogens with water

  1. Halogens forms acidic solutions when they react with water
  2. Halogens show bleaching properties when they react with water

(B) Reactions of halogens with iron

Halogens form iron(III) halides when they react with iron / When going down Group 17, halogens become less reactive in their reactions with iron

(C) ) Reactions of halogens with sodium hydroxide, NaOH solution

Halogens form sodium halide, sodium halite(I) and water when they react with sodium hydroxide / When going down Group 17, halogens become less reactive in their reactions with sodium hydroxide solution

Apparatus
  • Test tubes
  • Dropper
  • Test tube holders
  • Stoppers
  • Combustion tubes
  • Delivery tubes
  • Bunsen burner
  • Retort stand and clamp
Material
  • Chlorine gas, Cl2 (produce after mixing potassium manganate(VII) salts with concentrated hydrochloric acid)
  • Liquid bromine, Br2
  • Solid iodine, I2
  • Blue litmus paper
  • Water
  • Iron wool
  • Soda lime
  • 2 mol dm-3 sodium hydroxide, NaOH solution
Variables (A) Reactions of halogens with water

  • Manipulated variable: Type of halogens
  • Responding variable: Change in colour of the blue litmus paper / Reactivity of halogens
  • Controlled / Fixed variable: Water

(B) Reactions of halogens with iron

  • Manipulated variable: Types of halogens
  • Responding variable: Appearance of brown solid / Reactivity of halogens
  • Controlled / Fixed variable: Iron

(C) ) Reactions of halogens with sodium hydroxide, NaOH solution

  • Manipulated variable: Types of halogens
  • Responding variable: Formation of a colourless solution from a coloured halogen / Reactivity of halogens
  • Controlled / Fixed variable: Sodium hydroxide solution
Operational Definition (A) Reactions of halogens with water

  1. When blue litmus paper turns red, the solution formed shows acidic property
  2. When blue litmus paper turns white, the solution formed shows bleaching property

(B) Reactions of halogens with iron

The appearance of a brown solid shows the formation of iron(III) halides

(C) ) Reactions of halogens with sodium hydroxide, NaOH solution

The formation of a colourless solution indicates that salts of sodium halide, sodium halite(I) and water are formed

===============================================

Number Experiment 4.3
Pg. 45
Title Properties of the oxides of elements in Period 3
Aim To study the properties of the oxides of elements in Period 3
Problem Statement How do the acid-base properties of the oxides of elements change across Period 3?
Hypothesis Acidic properties of the oxides of elements increase whereas basic properties of the oxides of elements decrease across Period 3
Apparatus
  • Boiling tubes
  • Test tubes
  • Test tube holder
  • Glass rod
  • Spatula
  • Gas jar
  • Gas cover
  • 100 cm3 measuring cylinder
Material
  • Sodium oxide, Na2O
  • Magnesium oxide, MgO
  • Aluminium oxide, Al2O3
  • Silicon(IV) oxide, SiO2
  • Phosphorus pentoxide, P2O5
  • Sulphur dioxide gas, SO2
  • Dichlorine heptoxide, Cl2O7
  • Universal Indicator
  • 2 mol dm-3 nitric acid, HNO3
  • 2 mol dm-3 sodium hydroxide, NaOH solution
Variables
  • Manipulated variable: Oxides of elements of Period 3
  • Responding variable: pH values in water and solubility in acid or alkali
  • Controlled / Fixed variable: Water or nitric acid, HNO3 or sodium hydroxide, NaOH solution
Operational Definition
  1. Oxide that dissolves in water to form solution with pH less than 7 is acidic and pH more than 7 is alkaline
  2. Oxide that can dissolve in an acid exhibits basic properties
  3. Oxide that can dissolve in an alkali exhibits acidic properties
  4. Oxide that can dissolve in both acid and alkali exhibits amphoteric properties

Previous post:

Next post: