SPM Chemistry Form 4 Notes – Acids and Bases (Part 8 )

by BerryBerryTeacher

in Berry Reference (Notes)

Neutralisation is the name given for a chemical reaction involving an acid and base where they interact and ends with the formation of salt. In it, the base “cancels out” the acid in the reaction. Understanding the definition of this is important to identify the neutralisation process which occurs regularly but goes unnoticed by most Berry Readers. So the basic premise is – Acid + Alkali –> Salt + Water. It is that simple. However, most students find it difficult for some unknown reasons. Nevermind, as Berry Berry Easy will share some notes on this Part 8 in the series of notes on Acids and Bases for Form 4 SPM Chemistry students. In this post, you’ll also learn about the applications of neutralisation reactions in daily life.

[Tips: The basic understanding of the neutralisation chemical reaction would involve H+ + OH- in its net ionic equation. So while the "word" formula for neutralisation is Acid + Alkali --> Salt + Water, it is also useful to understand the generic chemical term of YOH + HX → XY + H2O, where X is a monovalent anion and Y is a monovalent cation. The resulting salt is represented by XY and H2O is obviously water.]

SPM Chemistry Form 4 Notes – Acids and Bases (Part 8 )

Sodium hydroxide

Sodium hydroxide


  • Neutralisation = a reaction between an acid and a base/alkali to produce salt and water only.
  • Acid + alkali –> salt + water
  • Ionic equation of neutralisation: H+(aq) + OH-(aq) –> H2O(l)

Application of Neutralisation Reactions in Daily Life

Digestive juices in stomach Break up food (only in acidic condition) and maintained at pH of between 1 and 2,
Insect stings Bees and ants inject an acidic liquid into the skin but wasps inject an alkaline liquid.
Toothpaste An alkaline compound (magnesium hydroxide) in toothpastes neutralises the organic acids produced by the food.
pH of the swimming pool Calcium hypochlorite, Ca(OCl)2 is added to the water.
Latex industries Ammonia is used to neutralise the organic acid produces by bacteria to prevent coagulation.
Neutralisation Manufacture fertilisers, soaps and detergents
Effluent from factories It can be treated with lime.
Sulphuric acid Manufacture of dyes, explosives, steel, fertilisers, paints and plastics.
Soil treatment Plants grow best when the pH of the soil is about 7. The soil is too acidic, quick lime (calcium oxide) or slaked lime (calcium hydroxide) is added to the soil to neutralise the excess acid.

You have reached the end of Part 8 of essential short notes on Acids and Bases by Berry Berry Easy specially for SPM Chemistry Form 4 students. In the next post, you’ll learn about the very exam-popular acid-base titration. So make sure you don’t miss out on the next post. :-)

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