SPM Chemistry Form 4 Notes – Acids and Bases (Part 9 – Final)

by BerryBerryTeacher

in Berry Reference (Notes)

Acid-base titration is a method used to determine the concentration (quantitative analysis) of an acid or base. Despite the complicated sounding name (at least for most Form 4 students in Malaysia), it is just a simple neutralisation process based on the principle where the moles of acids will eventually be equal with the moles of bases at equivalence point. It can also be used to figure out the purity level of chemicals. This post, Part 9 in the series of notes by Berry Berry Easy on Acids and Bases for SPM Form 4 Chemistry is about the berry berry popular topic of acid-base titration. It is near certain to appear in exams from SPM all the way up to university level. So you might want to take note and be fully serious about this topic.

[Tips: Some Berry Readers are content to just learn it theoretically from books. Although you won't fully understand the importance of this experiment which is the precursors for all future quantitative analysis experiments you'll do in the future, you'll appreciate having done it properly in the lab during school days. So do not play around in the lab when your teacher conducts this lab. You'll learn more through the experiment and keep it in your head than any book could help you.]

SPM Chemistry Form 4 Notes – Acids and Bases (Part 9 – Final)

Sodium hydroxide

Sodium hydroxide

Acid-base Titration

  • Titration – a quantitative analysis method to determine the volume of an acid that is required to neutralise a fixed volume of an alkali / a quantitative analysis method to determine the volume of an alkali that is required to neutralise a fixed volume of an acid.
  • End point of a titration – a point which neutralisation occurs when the acid has completely neutralised the alkali / the alkali has completely neutralised the acid.
  • Reactants: Acid and alkali
  • Products: Salt and water
  • End point can be determined by (i) the use of acid-base indicators during titration, (ii) measuring the pH values of the solution during titration and (iii) measuring the electrical conductivity of solution during titration.
Indicator Alkali Neutral Acid
Litmus Blue Orange Red
Methyl orange Yellow Orange Red
Phenolphthalein Pink Colourless Colourless

Finally, you have arrived at the end of this series of notes on Acids and Bases for SPM Form 4 Chemistry by Berry Berry Easy.

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