A balanced diet is the most important step to maintain one’s good health. It is the key to reach a balance between having enough energy for daily activities and also to maintain a healthy weight. There is also a misconception that a good diet consist of no fat, no sugar, no salt and other extreme measures. This is wrong as a balanced diet is more important than the devoid of any important classes of food. This post, Part II of study notes from Berry Berry Easy on Nutrition for SPM Biology Form 4 students will be focused on balanced diet and the important classes of food. So do read on. It is a simple topic that is moderately popular in exams.
[Tips: In view of the topic, the following tips will not be study tips but nutritional tips instead. Instead of avoiding sugar and salt completely, it is advisable to just limit the intake of simple sugar and limit salt consumption (while ensuring that the salt is already iodised). Also, if you intend to go vegetarian, make sure that you take in all the essential amino acids too. Avocado and pumpkin seeds are useful to provide all the essential amino acids, which are typically only available in animal-based diet.]
SPM Biology Form 4 Notes – Nutrition (Part II)
- Diet – the food and drink that we consume.
- Balanced diet – diet contains the correct proportions of all the different classes of foods for the requirement of body.
- Metabolisms – the sum of all biochemical reactions that occur in the cells of living organisms.
- Metabolic rate – a measure of the energy demands of the living body over a specified period of time. Unit – kilojoule (kJ)
- Energy value / calorific value of food – the quantity of heat produced when one gram of food is completely oxidised. Unit – Joules per gram (J g-1) or calories.
- Energy value = (Mass of water x Increase in temperature x 4.2 ) / Mass of food
- Energy value = (g)(˚C)(J g-1˚C-1) / (g) = J g-1
Seven Important Classes of Food
- Carbohydrates (provide energy)
- Proteins (Build new tissues / important in growth and repairing damaged tissues)
- Fats (provide energy / storage of extra foods)
- Water (act as medium for biochemical reaction / transportation of substances)
- Vitamins (prevent diseases / efficient metabolism / important for normal growth)
- Minerals (important for normal growth and development of teeth, bones and muscles)
- Roughage / Dietary fiber (prevent constipation / stimulate peristalsis)
This marks the end of Part 2 of notes from Berry Berry Easy on Nutrition for SPM Biology Form 4 students. In the next part, Part III, Berry Readers will learn about the many factors affecting daily energy requirement and the basics of food energy content.