Berry Reference (Notes)

SPM Chemistry Form 5 Notes – Chemicals for Consumers (Part 8 )

15 September 2011

Food stabilisers are typically used in food production to provide a firmer texture to food. It works by stabilising emulsions through the inhibition of reactions between chemicals in food. (It should be noted that they are not true emulsifiers.) This part, Part 8 of notes from Berry Berry Easy on the Form 5 chemistry chapter [...]

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SPM Chemistry Form 5 Notes – Chemicals for Consumers (Part 7)

13 September 2011

Food flavouring or flavour enhancers are food additives to gives or strengthen the taste/smell of a particular food. It allows food to be sweet, sour, salty, bitter and so on. It should be noted that natural flavour extracts have high costs, so usually synthesised commercial flavourants which are chemical equivalent to the corresponding natural flavours [...]

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SPM Chemistry Form 5 Notes – Chemicals for Consumers (Part 6)

11 September 2011

Antioxidants are added to food as food additives to act as preservatives. This prolonged the edible period of food and retain its nutrient by inhibiting the effects of oxygens on food (oxidation), which is directly beneficial to human health. Natural antioxidants may include ascorbic acid and tocopherols, while common synthetic antioxidants include TBHQ, BHA and [...]

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SPM Chemistry Form 5 Notes – Chemicals for Consumers (Part 5)

9 September 2011

Food additives are added to food to improve its flavour, appearance and functional aspects. Most Berry Readers will imagine food additives to be of synthetic nature and involves a lot of industrial chemistry. However, this is a misconception as additives have been used since ancient times with natural food additives such as salt (salting), vinegar [...]

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SPM Chemistry Form 5 Notes – Chemicals for Consumers (Part 4)

7 September 2011

As you would have known in the previous post that soaps and detergent do have their differences. This post, Part 4 in the series of notes on Chemicals for Consumers by Berry Berry Easy for SPM Form 5 Chemistry is about the effectiveness of the cleansing actions of the two products in different conditions. The [...]

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SPM Chemistry Form 5 Notes – Chemicals for Consumers (Part 3)

5 September 2011

Soaps and detergents are typically considered by many to be the same, due to both being surfactants which are also washing compounds. However, they are very different as soaps are made of natural material while detergents are more synthetic. The effects of soap as a washing compound is negatively affected when they react with minerals [...]

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SPM Chemistry Form 5 Notes – Chemicals for Consumers (Part 2)

3 September 2011

Detergents are surfactant which works like soap but is not affected by hard water. The amphiphilic nature of detergent allows the removal of oil and grease from a surface when mixed with water. This is due to the polar (hydrophilic) and non-polar (hydrophobic) nature working together to mix oil/grease which are hydrophobic compounds with water. [...]

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SPM Chemistry Form 5 Notes – Chemicals for Consumers (Part 1)

1 September 2011

Chemicals for Consumers consist of many everyday product used in society such as soap, detergent, alcohol, food additives, insect sprays, paints, petrol, medicines and many others. The understanding of the use and associated risks involving the chemicals contained in the consumer products are crucial to reduce the potential harmful effects of chemicals for consumers. In [...]

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STPM Chemistry Form 6 Note – Tips on Learning Organic Chemistry

27 August 2011

Organic chemistry for STPM Chemistry Form 6 students is often regarded as a very difficult mega-topic. Usually, it is more about the mind set of the students than the actual difficulty of the subject itself. Without listening to seniors or any other opinions that organic chemistry is difficult, it is actually just simply about the [...]

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STPM Chemistry Form 6 – Introduction of Organic Reaction (Part 3 – Final)

25 August 2011

Inductive effects are the effects of charge transmission by electrostatic induction through a chain of atoms in a molecule. The inductive effects is usually measured through the Hammett equation which describes the linear free-energy relationship of reaction rates and equilibrium constants. Fortunately, the scope covered in STPM Chemistry is not too large. You’ll learn all [...]

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STPM Chemistry Form 6 – Introduction of Organic Reaction (Part 2)

23 August 2011

Sites of organic reactions refers to the sites within molecules where there are additional or a deficit of electrons. Read all about it here on Berry Berry Easy in this post, Part 2 in the chapter of Introduction to Organic Chemistry for STPM Chemistry. It is important to understand the reaction sites in terms of [...]

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STPM Chemistry Form 6 – Introduction of Organic Reaction (Part 1)

22 August 2011

Organic reactions for STPM Form 6 Chemistry simply means chemical reactions which involves organic compounds. From it, you’ll learn about basic organic chemistry reaction types with focus on reaction types such as substitution reactions, elimination reactions and addition reactions. (Other common reaction types like pericyclic reactions, rearrangement reactions, photochemical reactions and the familiar redox reactions [...]

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STPM Chemistry Form 6 Note – Introduction of Organic Chemistry

20 August 2011

Organic chemistry is the study of carbon-based compounds (with emphasise on hydrocarbon for STPM Chemistry/Form 6 Malaysia) in terms of strutural properties, its composition and their involved reactions. The compounds that are deemed to be organic compounds are wide-ranging. Carbon compounds (with the exception of some inorganic carbon compounds) are usually organic in nature. At [...]

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SPM Biology Form 4 Notes – Nutrition (Part VI)

18 August 2011

Water-soluble vitamins are vitamins that are soluble in water. While it sounds obvious but its implication is large. Because it is water-soluble, it has to be replaced daily as the body does not store them or absorbed in the fat globules. Since it is replaced daily, you will need to ingest them on a daily [...]

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