Berry Reference (Notes)

SPM Biology Form 4 Notes – Nutrition (Part V)

17 August 2011

Vitamin (organic compound) is commonly recognised as one of the food category to maintain health. Unlike the big three of “carbohydrate, protein and fat”, vitamin is only required in small amount as nutrient. Vitamin is vital as it cannot be adequately produced by our body, hence it must be ingested through our daily diet. At [...]

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SPM Biology Form 4 Notes – Nutrition (Part IV)

16 August 2011

Classes of food nutrient is the basic classes used in the formulation of a healthy diet. The classical six basic classes of food includes: Carbohydrates, Protein, Fat, Vitamins, Minerals and Water. This Part 4 in the series of summarised study notes by Berry Berry Easy on Nutrition for SPM Biology Form 4 students is focussed [...]

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SPM Biology Form 4 Notes – Nutrition (Part III)

11 August 2011

Daily energy requirement simply means the energy required per day for activities. Typically, it can be calculated using your basal metabolism rate (BMR), which is the least amount of energy required to ensure that your body organs are functioning well and also to maintain your body temperature around 36.9 degree Celcius. The daily energy requirement [...]

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SPM Biology Form 4 Notes – Nutrition (Part II)

8 August 2011

A balanced diet is the most important step to maintain one’s good health. It is the key to reach a balance between having enough energy for daily activities and also to maintain a healthy weight. There is also a misconception that a good diet consist of no fat, no sugar, no salt and other extreme [...]

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SPM Biology Form 4 Notes – Nutrition (Part I)

26 July 2011

Nutrition is the all-important process which is why all Berry Readers are still alive and checking out our website. It is a process of obtaining the “materials” (food) to sustain life and growth. While students will most likely only think of human-edible food, the subtopics covering SPM Biology Form 4 is more than that. So [...]

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SPM Chemistry Form 4 Notes – Acids and Bases (Part 9 – Final)

21 July 2011

Acid-base titration is a method used to determine the concentration (quantitative analysis) of an acid or base. Despite the complicated sounding name (at least for most Form 4 students in Malaysia), it is just a simple neutralisation process based on the principle where the moles of acids will eventually be equal with the moles of [...]

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SPM Chemistry Form 4 Notes – Acids and Bases (Part 8 )

18 July 2011

Neutralisation is the name given for a chemical reaction involving an acid and base where they interact and ends with the formation of salt. In it, the base “cancels out” the acid in the reaction. Understanding the definition of this is important to identify the neutralisation process which occurs regularly but goes unnoticed by most [...]

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SPM Chemistry Form 4 Notes – Acids and Bases (Part 7)

15 July 2011

One of the most common misconception for SPM Form 4 Chemistry students is the perception that strength of acids/bases is actually the same as concentration of acids/bases. This cannot be more wrong a perception. The strength of acids and bases is linked to the ionisation and dissociation in solutions. While concentration is defined by parameters [...]

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SPM Chemistry Form 4 Notes – Acids and Bases (Part 6)

13 July 2011

Strength of acids and bases. Most of the cartoons that we watched when we were young depict acids as very very corrosive. It will probably seemed to the young viewers that all acids are very very corrosive. However, this is not the case for both acids and bases. This is due to the different levels [...]

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SPM Chemistry Form 4 Notes – Acids and Bases (Part 5)

12 July 2011

The pH scale is just a scale using colours to represent the concentration of hydrogen ions. In SPM Chemistry (and real-life applications), it has more far reaching consequences as it is a measure of acidity and basicity of an aqueous solution. It is typically used as a quick indicator to see if an aqueous solution [...]

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SPM Chemistry Form 4 Notes – Acids and Bases (Part 4)

10 July 2011

Acids in simple terms can be thought to be compounds which donates hydrogen when dissolved in water. So, what do we make of monoprotic acid and polyprotic acid? The difference is in the ability to donate hydrogens. Monoprotic acids have only a single hydrogen to donate, while polyprotic acids have multiple hydrogens ions to be [...]

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SPM Chemistry Form 4 Notes – Acids and Bases (Part 3)

9 July 2011

If we are talking about opposites in chemistry, there can not be any more opposites than acid and alkali. Acids are the chemical opposites of bases. This is (partly) due to their where acids donates a hydrogen ion to another compound called base, hence they are chemically opposite. Of course there are other differences between [...]

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SPM Chemistry Form 4 Notes – Acids and Bases (Part 2)

8 July 2011

Acids and bases are very useful in our daily lives. Let’s start with acids. Without acids, we won’t have Vitamin C (ascorbic acid), your car won’t start (sulphuric acid in car batteries) or even accelerated rotting of your food (food preservative in the form of citric acid). Similarly, imagine a world without bases. Without bases, [...]

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SPM Chemistry Form 4 Notes – Acids and Bases (Part 1)

6 July 2011

Acids and bases (alkali) are something which most Berry Readers will imagine to be only available in labs of mad scientists, due to perception seen in cartoons or science-fiction movies. However, in reality, acids are less ‘glamourous’ and they appear in everyday food such as lemon (citric acid) and vinegar (acetic acid) and most others [...]

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