Acids and Bases

SPM Chemistry Form 4 Notes – Acids and Bases (Part 9 – Final)

21 July 2011

Acid-base titration is a method used to determine the concentration (quantitative analysis) of an acid or base. Despite the complicated sounding name (at least for most Form 4 students in Malaysia), it is just a simple neutralisation process based on the principle where the moles of acids will eventually be equal with the moles of [...]

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SPM Chemistry Form 4 Notes – Acids and Bases (Part 8 )

18 July 2011

Neutralisation is the name given for a chemical reaction involving an acid and base where they interact and ends with the formation of salt. In it, the base “cancels out” the acid in the reaction. Understanding the definition of this is important to identify the neutralisation process which occurs regularly but goes unnoticed by most [...]

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SPM Chemistry Form 4 Notes – Acids and Bases (Part 7)

15 July 2011

One of the most common misconception for SPM Form 4 Chemistry students is the perception that strength of acids/bases is actually the same as concentration of acids/bases. This cannot be more wrong a perception. The strength of acids and bases is linked to the ionisation and dissociation in solutions. While concentration is defined by parameters [...]

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SPM Chemistry Form 4 Notes – Acids and Bases (Part 6)

13 July 2011

Strength of acids and bases. Most of the cartoons that we watched when we were young depict acids as very very corrosive. It will probably seemed to the young viewers that all acids are very very corrosive. However, this is not the case for both acids and bases. This is due to the different levels [...]

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SPM Chemistry Form 4 Notes – Acids and Bases (Part 5)

12 July 2011

The pH scale is just a scale using colours to represent the concentration of hydrogen ions. In SPM Chemistry (and real-life applications), it has more far reaching consequences as it is a measure of acidity and basicity of an aqueous solution. It is typically used as a quick indicator to see if an aqueous solution [...]

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SPM Chemistry Form 4 Notes – Acids and Bases (Part 4)

10 July 2011

Acids in simple terms can be thought to be compounds which donates hydrogen when dissolved in water. So, what do we make of monoprotic acid and polyprotic acid? The difference is in the ability to donate hydrogens. Monoprotic acids have only a single hydrogen to donate, while polyprotic acids have multiple hydrogens ions to be [...]

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SPM Chemistry Form 4 Notes – Acids and Bases (Part 3)

9 July 2011

If we are talking about opposites in chemistry, there can not be any more opposites than acid and alkali. Acids are the chemical opposites of bases. This is (partly) due to their where acids donates a hydrogen ion to another compound called base, hence they are chemically opposite. Of course there are other differences between [...]

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SPM Chemistry Form 4 Notes – Acids and Bases (Part 2)

8 July 2011

Acids and bases are very useful in our daily lives. Let’s start with acids. Without acids, we won’t have Vitamin C (ascorbic acid), your car won’t start (sulphuric acid in car batteries) or even accelerated rotting of your food (food preservative in the form of citric acid). Similarly, imagine a world without bases. Without bases, [...]

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