Nota

SPM Chemistry Form 5 Notes – Chemicals for Consumers (Part 2)

3 September 2011

Detergents are surfactant which works like soap but is not affected by hard water. The amphiphilic nature of detergent allows the removal of oil and grease from a surface when mixed with water. This is due to the polar (hydrophilic) and non-polar (hydrophobic) nature working together to mix oil/grease which are hydrophobic compounds with water. [...]

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SPM Chemistry Form 5 Notes – Chemicals for Consumers (Part 1)

1 September 2011

Chemicals for Consumers consist of many everyday product used in society such as soap, detergent, alcohol, food additives, insect sprays, paints, petrol, medicines and many others. The understanding of the use and associated risks involving the chemicals contained in the consumer products are crucial to reduce the potential harmful effects of chemicals for consumers. In [...]

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STPM Chemistry Form 6 Note – Tips on Learning Organic Chemistry

27 August 2011

Organic chemistry for STPM Chemistry Form 6 students is often regarded as a very difficult mega-topic. Usually, it is more about the mind set of the students than the actual difficulty of the subject itself. Without listening to seniors or any other opinions that organic chemistry is difficult, it is actually just simply about the [...]

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STPM Chemistry Form 6 – Introduction of Organic Reaction (Part 3 – Final)

25 August 2011

Inductive effects are the effects of charge transmission by electrostatic induction through a chain of atoms in a molecule. The inductive effects is usually measured through the Hammett equation which describes the linear free-energy relationship of reaction rates and equilibrium constants. Fortunately, the scope covered in STPM Chemistry is not too large. You’ll learn all [...]

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STPM Chemistry Form 6 – Introduction of Organic Reaction (Part 2)

23 August 2011

Sites of organic reactions refers to the sites within molecules where there are additional or a deficit of electrons. Read all about it here on Berry Berry Easy in this post, Part 2 in the chapter of Introduction to Organic Chemistry for STPM Chemistry. It is important to understand the reaction sites in terms of [...]

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STPM Chemistry Form 6 – Introduction of Organic Reaction (Part 1)

22 August 2011

Organic reactions for STPM Form 6 Chemistry simply means chemical reactions which involves organic compounds. From it, you’ll learn about basic organic chemistry reaction types with focus on reaction types such as substitution reactions, elimination reactions and addition reactions. (Other common reaction types like pericyclic reactions, rearrangement reactions, photochemical reactions and the familiar redox reactions [...]

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STPM Chemistry Form 6 Note – Introduction of Organic Chemistry

20 August 2011

Organic chemistry is the study of carbon-based compounds (with emphasise on hydrocarbon for STPM Chemistry/Form 6 Malaysia) in terms of strutural properties, its composition and their involved reactions. The compounds that are deemed to be organic compounds are wide-ranging. Carbon compounds (with the exception of some inorganic carbon compounds) are usually organic in nature. At [...]

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SPM Biology Form 4 Notes – Nutrition (Part VI)

18 August 2011

Water-soluble vitamins are vitamins that are soluble in water. While it sounds obvious but its implication is large. Because it is water-soluble, it has to be replaced daily as the body does not store them or absorbed in the fat globules. Since it is replaced daily, you will need to ingest them on a daily [...]

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SPM Biology Form 4 Notes – Nutrition (Part V)

17 August 2011

Vitamin (organic compound) is commonly recognised as one of the food category to maintain health. Unlike the big three of “carbohydrate, protein and fat”, vitamin is only required in small amount as nutrient. Vitamin is vital as it cannot be adequately produced by our body, hence it must be ingested through our daily diet. At [...]

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SPM Biology Form 4 Notes – Nutrition (Part IV)

16 August 2011

Classes of food nutrient is the basic classes used in the formulation of a healthy diet. The classical six basic classes of food includes: Carbohydrates, Protein, Fat, Vitamins, Minerals and Water. This Part 4 in the series of summarised study notes by Berry Berry Easy on Nutrition for SPM Biology Form 4 students is focussed [...]

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SPM Biology Form 4 Notes – Nutrition (Part III)

11 August 2011

Daily energy requirement simply means the energy required per day for activities. Typically, it can be calculated using your basal metabolism rate (BMR), which is the least amount of energy required to ensure that your body organs are functioning well and also to maintain your body temperature around 36.9 degree Celcius. The daily energy requirement [...]

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SPM Biology Form 4 Notes – Nutrition (Part II)

8 August 2011

A balanced diet is the most important step to maintain one’s good health. It is the key to reach a balance between having enough energy for daily activities and also to maintain a healthy weight. There is also a misconception that a good diet consist of no fat, no sugar, no salt and other extreme [...]

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SPM Biology Form 4 Notes – Nutrition (Part I)

26 July 2011

Nutrition is the all-important process which is why all Berry Readers are still alive and checking out our website. It is a process of obtaining the “materials” (food) to sustain life and growth. While students will most likely only think of human-edible food, the subtopics covering SPM Biology Form 4 is more than that. So [...]

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SPM Chemistry Form 4 Notes – Acids and Bases (Part 9 – Final)

21 July 2011

Acid-base titration is a method used to determine the concentration (quantitative analysis) of an acid or base. Despite the complicated sounding name (at least for most Form 4 students in Malaysia), it is just a simple neutralisation process based on the principle where the moles of acids will eventually be equal with the moles of [...]

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