Nota

SPM Chemistry Form 4 Notes – Acids and Bases (Part 8 )

18 July 2011

Neutralisation is the name given for a chemical reaction involving an acid and base where they interact and ends with the formation of salt. In it, the base “cancels out” the acid in the reaction. Understanding the definition of this is important to identify the neutralisation process which occurs regularly but goes unnoticed by most [...]

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SPM Chemistry Form 4 Notes – Acids and Bases (Part 7)

15 July 2011

One of the most common misconception for SPM Form 4 Chemistry students is the perception that strength of acids/bases is actually the same as concentration of acids/bases. This cannot be more wrong a perception. The strength of acids and bases is linked to the ionisation and dissociation in solutions. While concentration is defined by parameters [...]

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SPM Chemistry Form 4 Notes – Acids and Bases (Part 6)

13 July 2011

Strength of acids and bases. Most of the cartoons that we watched when we were young depict acids as very very corrosive. It will probably seemed to the young viewers that all acids are very very corrosive. However, this is not the case for both acids and bases. This is due to the different levels [...]

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SPM Chemistry Form 4 Notes – Acids and Bases (Part 5)

12 July 2011

The pH scale is just a scale using colours to represent the concentration of hydrogen ions. In SPM Chemistry (and real-life applications), it has more far reaching consequences as it is a measure of acidity and basicity of an aqueous solution. It is typically used as a quick indicator to see if an aqueous solution [...]

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SPM Chemistry Form 4 Notes – Acids and Bases (Part 4)

10 July 2011

Acids in simple terms can be thought to be compounds which donates hydrogen when dissolved in water. So, what do we make of monoprotic acid and polyprotic acid? The difference is in the ability to donate hydrogens. Monoprotic acids have only a single hydrogen to donate, while polyprotic acids have multiple hydrogens ions to be [...]

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SPM Chemistry Form 4 Notes – Acids and Bases (Part 3)

9 July 2011

If we are talking about opposites in chemistry, there can not be any more opposites than acid and alkali. Acids are the chemical opposites of bases. This is (partly) due to their where acids donates a hydrogen ion to another compound called base, hence they are chemically opposite. Of course there are other differences between [...]

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SPM Chemistry Form 4 Notes – Acids and Bases (Part 2)

8 July 2011

Acids and bases are very useful in our daily lives. Let’s start with acids. Without acids, we won’t have Vitamin C (ascorbic acid), your car won’t start (sulphuric acid in car batteries) or even accelerated rotting of your food (food preservative in the form of citric acid). Similarly, imagine a world without bases. Without bases, [...]

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SPM Chemistry Form 4 Notes – Acids and Bases (Part 1)

6 July 2011

Acids and bases (alkali) are something which most Berry Readers will imagine to be only available in labs of mad scientists, due to perception seen in cartoons or science-fiction movies. However, in reality, acids are less ‘glamourous’ and they appear in everyday food such as lemon (citric acid) and vinegar (acetic acid) and most others [...]

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SPM Chemistry Form 4 Notes – Electrochemistry (Part 10 – Final)

5 July 2011

Most of the time, students learn stuffs in SPM Chemistry thinking that it is just for exams and whatever they learn will have no practical application in real life. That perception is wrong, as everything you learn is either building blocks to understand something more complex or it already has practical applications which was neglected [...]

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SPM Chemistry Form 4 Notes – Electrochemistry (Part 9)

4 July 2011

Electrochemical series for SPM Chemistry is simply a collection of the standard electrode potential values being ordered in tables. Sometimes the volts as compared to the baseline is given. Here, the value of standard hydrogen electrode is used as the baseline and is set at 0. So, this Part 9 in the series of note [...]

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SPM Chemistry Form 4 Notes – Electrochemistry (Part 8 )

2 July 2011

Half-equations are components that make up an overall reaction equation. Two half-equations (usually written as empirical equations) can be written as a pair in which overall reaction equation is form (must be balanced according to electron charge). The two that can form a pair must each be an oxidation and reduction half-reactions. Usually students taking [...]

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SPM Chemistry Form 4 Notes – Electrochemistry (Part 7)

28 June 2011

The two ‘cells’ that Berry Readers will learn during the course of SPM Chemistry are the voltaic cell/galvanic cell and the Danielle cell. The first is an electrochemical cell which produces electrical energy from chemical reactions occuring in the cell which consists of two different metal connected by a salt bridge (alternatively, half-cells separated by [...]

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SPM Chemistry Form 4 Notes – Electrochemistry (Part 6)

26 June 2011

Industrial uses of electrolysis are very important to produce many raw materials and feedstock for generating electricity. However, most Berry Readers might not even realise the magnitude of the electrolysis-based industry and the economical impact if electrolysis is not used. Among example of large-scale industrial uses of electrolysis include the production of aluminium (Hall-Heroult process), [...]

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SPM Chemistry Form 4 Notes – Electrochemistry (Part 5)

24 June 2011

One important factor governing the process of electrolysis is the types of electrodes used. This Part 5 of Berry Berry Easy notes for SPM Form 4 Chemistry on Electrochemistry is a further add-on to the two previous factors affecting electrolysis. The first two being the positions of ions in the electrochemical series and effects of [...]

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