SPM Biology Form 4 Notes – Terminology and Concepts: Cell Structure and Cell Organisation (Part II)

by BerryBerryTeacher

in Berry Reference (Notes)

Continuing from Part 1 of Cell Structure and Organisation, Berry Berry Easy will like to present you with part 2 of the same topic. The previous part involved Mitochondrion, Nucleus, Neucleolus, Neucleoplasm, Chromosomes, Ribosomes, Endoplasmic reticulum and Plasma membrane. So be sure to check out the previous post.

SPM Form 4 – Terminology and Concepts: Cell Structure and Cell Organisation

Neuron cell

Neuron cell

Cell Structure and Function

Comparison between Animal Cell (AC) and Plant Cell (PC)

9. Golgi apparatus / Golgi body: AC and PC

  • bound sacs
  • processes, packages and transport molecules synthesised in the cell
  • forms lysosomes
  • transports and stores lipids
  • synthesis of carbohydrate from hormone
  • changes protein into glycoprotein
  • excretes waste products out of the cell

10. Cytoplasm: AC and PC

  • aqueous solution (except nucleus)
  • stores water, enzymes, nutrient, salts and dissolved gases
  • provided support, shape and protects the cell organelles
  • medium for metabolic reactions
  • provides substances

11. Lysosome: AC

  • sac-like organelle with one membrane
  • digest proteins, lipids and carbohydrates
  • removes undigested materials
  • releases enzymes to digest external materials

12Centriole: AC

  • are paired cylindrical organelles
  • nine tubes with three tubules each
  • produces spindle during cell division (mitosis and meiosis)
  • migrate to the opposite poles of the cell (during cell division – will be discussed in Chapter 5 Cell Division)

13. Vacuole: AC (temporary / lower class species) and PC

  • small cavity in the cytoplasm
  • bound by a single membrane
  • filled with cell sap
  • storage of food (protein, oil and water)
  • some vacuoles remove metabolic waste
  • functions as cell expansion
  • Amoeba: food vacuoles (phagocytosis)
  • Paramecium: contractile vacuoles (expel water)

14. Cell Wall: PC

  • rigid and tough cellulose layer surrounding the plasma membrane (cell membrane)
  • protects and supports the cell
  • maintains the shape
  • prevents the cell from busting (excessive intake of water)
  • allows substances to move freely through the cell wall

15. Chloroplast: PC

  • disc / lens-shaped organelle
  • have two membranes: inner and outer membrane
  • contains chlorophyll in the grana to trap sunlight energy
  • carry out photosynthesis in the chlorophyll
  • storage of food and pigments


  • AC and PC = similarities
  • AC or PC = differences (Carbohydrates storage: AC = Glycogen / PC = Starch)

The notes for this topic is not yet complete, so check out for Part III. Log on frequently to Berry Berry Easy for more notes.

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August 13, 2012

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