SPM Chemistry Form 5 Notes – Terminology and Concepts: Carbon Compounds (Part 8)

by BerryBerryTeacher

in Berry Reference (Notes)

Berry Berry Easy is back again with Part 8 of the super long Carbon Compound series for SPM Form 5 Chemistry. This will be the penultimate part of this long series. (I can hear sigh of relief from you readers already, as you all must be wondering when this topic will ever end) Similar to Parts 5-7, this is also about non-hydrocarbon. After featuring alcohol, carboxylic acids and ester in Part 5, 6 and 7, respectively, this part will be about fat. (Not gemuk, but lemak). This is a rather easy component of non-hydrocarbon but students typically struggle at remembering the names for the fat. Nonetheless, you ought to understand fully the previous 3 parts before hopping into Part 8.

SPM Form 5 – Terminology and Concepts: Carbon Compounds (Part 8 )

Non-Hydrocarbon – Fats

1. Fatrs are non-hydrocarbons which contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen atoms.

2. Fats (lipids / triglycerides) are belonging to the group in ester.

3. Natural esters are formed from glycerol and fatty acids.

Name of fat Molecular formula of ester Types of

fatty acids

Lauric acid* CH3(CH2)10COOH Saturated
Palmitic acid* CH3(CH2)14COOH Saturated
Stearic acid* CH3(CH2)16COOH Saturated
Oleic oxide ** CH3(CH2)7CH=CH(CH2)7COOH Unsaturated
Linoleic acid*** CH3(CH2)4CH=CHCH2CH=CH(CH2)7COOH Unsaturated
Linolenic acid*** CH3CH2CH=CHCH2CH=CHCH2CH=CH(CH2)7COOH Unsaturated

* Saturated: C-C single bonds

** Unsaturated (monounsaturated): C=C double bonds

*** Unsaturated (polyunsaturated): C=C double bonds

4. Animal fats have higher percentage of saturated fatty acids than unsaturated fatty acids.

5. Plant oils have higher percentage of unsaturated fatty acids than saturated fatty acids.

6. Physical properties of fats

Saturated Unsaturated
Types of fatty acids C-C single bonds C=C double bonds
Bonding single double
Melting point higher lower
Sources animals plants
Cholesterol high low
State at room temperature solid liquid

Fats (animal) in general are solids at room temperature and acted as:

  • thermal insulator
  • protective cushion to protect the vital organ
  • provide energy and stored in body
  • carry Vitamin A, D, E, K (insoluble in water)
  • Example: butter, fish oil (liquid in room temperature)
  • Fats (plant) are called oils. Oils are liquids at room temperature.
  • Example: olive oil, peanut oil, palm oil and bran oil

7. Chemical properties of fats

  • Unsaturated fats can be converted into saturated fats by hydrogenation (additional reaction) in 200°C and 4 atm in the presence of nickel catalyst.
  • Example: production of margarine from sunflower oil of palm oil.

8. Effect of fats

Fatty food produce high energy but high consumption of fatty food will results:

  • obesity
  • raise the level of cholesterol
  • deposition will cause block the flow of blood which lead to stroke and heart attack.

9. Palm oil

  • It is extracted from fresh oil palm fruits.
  • Palm oil – extracted from the pulp of the fruits.

Steps in extraction of palm oil:

  1. sterilising (oil palm fruit)
  2. stripping
  3. digestion (crushing the husk and fruit and separate the oil by heating)
  4. squeezed out the oil
  5. extraction (separate the oil from water)
  6. purification the oil (palm oil is treated with phosphoric acid and then steam is passed through to separate the acid)
  7. vacuum

Palm kernel oil – extracted from the kernel or seed.

Steps in extraction of palm oil:

  1. sterilising (oil palm fruit)
  2. stripping
  3. crushing the husk and fruit
  4. extracting kernel oil
  5. purification (purify the oil from kernel)

Goodness in palm oil:

  • higher proportion of unsaturated fats.
  • easy to digest and absorb.
  • rich in vitamin A (carotenoid)
  • rich in vitamin E (tocophenols and tocotrienols)
  • resist oxidation in high temperature.

So do check back on the final part of this series @ BerryBerryEasy. Just remember, if you cannot understand the essence from our Berry Notes, it means that you have not fully understand the concept of the whole topic.

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