SPM Chemistry Form 4 Notes – Periodic Table of Elements (Part 6 – Final)

by BerryBerryTeacher

in Berry Reference (Notes)

Consider this list: Scandium, Titanium, Vanadium, Chromium, Manganese, Iron, Cobalt, Nickel, Copper, Zinc, Yttrium, Zirconium, Niobium, Molybdenum, Technetium, Ruthenium, Rhodium, Palladium, Silver, Cadmium, Hafnium, Tantalum, Tungsten, Rhenium, Osmium, Iridium, Platinum, Gold, Mercury, Rutherfordium, Dubnium, Seaborgium, Bohrium, Hassium, Meitnerium, Darmstadtium and Roentgenium.

Q: What do they have in common?
A: They are all considered as transition elements (or sometimes called as transition metals) Note that the list above are not the complete list of transition elements.

So now that you know the elements listed above are transition elements, you might be interested to know in-depth about them. This post from the Berry Berry Teacher, Miss Isabelle Wong is all about transition elements. Berry Readers will get to learn about the physical characteristics of transition elements, their special characteristics and common uses, all in the final part, Part 6 of Berry Berry Easy notes on SPM Chemistry Form 4 – Periodic Table of Elements. Do note that, you are advised to read the previous parts before reading this post. Also, you do not need to memorise all the transition elements listed above, although you do need to know the common ones.

(Tips: Learn the colours of the coloured ions, and write them with colour pencils. This will further reinforce your ability to remember the colours. The colours are important as they are typical examination questions, especially on experimental observations. While memorising the exact properties of each elements is not required at this level, but you will be better off remembering the general properties of transition elements.)

SPM Chemistry Form 4 Notes – Periodic Table of Elements (Part 6 – Final)

Transition elements

  • Elements from Group 3 to Group 12
  • Metals
  • Atomic radius (atomic size) approximately the same
  • Solids with shiny surfaces
  • Very hard (compared to Group 1 and Group 2 metals)
  • High density
  • Ductile (ability to stretched into wires without breaking)
  • Malleable (ability to be bent into new shape)
  • High tensile strength (ability to stay in their shape without breaking)
  • High melting and boiling points
  • High density
  • Good conductors of electricity
  • Good conductors of heat
  • Electronegativity is low but increases (across the series)
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn
Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd
La Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg
Ac Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Ds Rg Uub


Colourful Complex of Transition Elements

Colourful Complex of Transition Elements

Special characteristics

  • Form coloured ions (Cu2+: blue / Fe2+: pale green / Fe3+: yellow)
  • Form coloured compound (cobalt chloride crystal: pink)
  • Different oxidation numbers in their compound
  • Useful catalysts (nickel – hydrogenation of vegetable oil, copper(II) sulphate – reaction of zinc with dilute sulphuric acid to liberate hydrogen gas, manganese(IV) oxide – decomposition of hydrogen peroxide to liberate oxygen gas, iron – Haber process, vanadium(V) oxide – Contact process, platinum – Ostwald process)
  • Form complex ions (bigger-sized polyatomic ion) (Hexacyanoferrate(III) ion / [Fe(CN)6]3- )


  • Iron – used as steel
  • Chromium – coating corroded metals, heat-resisting alloys and make stainless steel
  • Copper – making cables, pipes and electrical wires
  • Titanium – metal pipes and tanks, wings of supersonic aircraft

So finally we are at the end of Berry Berry Easy notes on SPM Chemistry Form 4 notes on the Periodic Table of Elements. Rejoice. This is a simple but heavily tested topic in exams. They will also return to haunt you in Form 6, foundation studies, A-level and further up. So learn them well over here now.

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May 16, 2012

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