SPM Chemistry Form 4 Notes – Chemical Bonds (Part 4 – Final)

by BerryBerryTeacher

in Berry Reference (Notes)

Difference between ‘Ionic Compound‘ and ‘Covalent Compound‘. This is one of the most common questions in tests for SPM Form 4 Chemistry students. (Then again, this is nothing unusual as comparison based questions are popular in most exams across all subjects.) This post, Part 4 of Berry Berry Easy‘s notes on Chemical Bonds for SPM Form 4 Chemistry is all about the differences between the two types of compounds. You’ll read all about the differences in terms of particles, electrons, forces, state, melting point, volatility, solubility (in water and organic solvent) and electricity conductor. Also in this post, you’ll be given example of common covalent compounds which can be used as solvent.

[Tips: Try your best to understand the differences between ionic compound and covalent compound through this table shown below. After understanding it, you should write it in table form as shown at least 3 times to fully memorise it by heart. The knowledge in this chapter forms the basis upon which you will learn chemistry later on in your student life. Learn by heart also the common covalent compounds used as solvent, especially their names and application. This always appears in objective questions in exams.]

SPM Chemistry Form 4 Notes – Chemical Bonds (Part 4 – Final)

Properties of Ionic and Covalent Compounds

Ionic Compound

Ionic Compound

Ionic Compound – ionic bonding is strong electrostatics forces between the oppositely-charged ions

Covalent Compound

Covalent Compound

Covalent Compound – covalent bonding is strong bonding between the atoms in the molecule

Ionic Compound Differences Covalent Compound
Ions Particles Molecules
Lost or gained Electron Shared
Strong electrostatics forces (Ionic bond) between the oppositely-charged ions arranged in a 3-D giant crystal lattice Forces Strong (Covalent bond) between the atoms in the molecule. Weak forces of attraction between the molecules (van der Waals’ forces)
Solid State Gases or volatile liquids
High Melting point Low (Simple molecules)High (Giant molecules)
High Melting point Low (Simple molecules)High (Giant molecules)
Non-volatile Volatility Very volatile (Simple molecules)Non-volatile (Giant molecules)
Dissolve in water and polar solvents Solubility in water Do not dissolve in water
Do not dissolve in organic solvent Solubility in organic solvent Dissolve in organic solvent (ether, alcohol, benzene, tetrachloromethane and propanone)
Conduct electricity in liquid and aqueous solution (positive and negative ions can move freely). Cannot conduct electricity in solid state (fixed position and cannot move freely). Electricity conductor Cannot conduct electricity in any state (no free mobile ions)

Uses of covalent compounds as solvent

  • Ether – solvents in the extraction of chemicals from aqueous solution
  • Alcohol – solvents used to make ink and dye because these solvent are volatile
  • Turpentine – dissolved paint
  • CFC (chlorofluocarbons) – solvents to clean computer circuits board
  • Propanone – remove nail varnish

This is the end of the series of notes on Chemical Bonds brought specially to all Form 4 SPM Chemistry students by Berry Berry Easy. Make sure you understand all the posts in this series before you proceed to other chapters as this is a very simple but extremely important chapter, not only for exams but also for general understanding of chemistry as a subject.

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August 31, 2011
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