SPM Biology Form 4 Notes – Nutrition (Part V)

by BerryBerryTeacher

in Berry Reference (Notes)

Vitamin (organic compound) is commonly recognised as one of the food category to maintain health. Unlike the big three of “carbohydrate, protein and fat”, vitamin is only required in small amount as nutrient. Vitamin is vital as it cannot be adequately produced by our body, hence it must be ingested through our daily diet. At the moment, there are 13 vitamins considered to be crucial to human health. They are Vitamin A, Vitamin B complex (variant in B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B7, B9 and B12), Vitamin C, Vitamin D, Vitamin E and Vitamin K.

This Part 5 of SPM Form 4 Biology notes on Nutrition by Berry Berry Easy is all about vitamins, with heavy emphasis on fat-soluble vitamins. In this post, you’ll learn the basics of the organic compound called vitamin and the types of fat-soluble vitamins in detail. Make sure you read it not only for your SPM examinations, but also for daily health. So it is both an SPM examination tips and also a daily health tip.

[Tips: Only vitamin B and C are soluble in water. The rest are soluble in fat. For those who are proficient in Malay, you can easily remember the word ADEK, which sounds like ADIK (younger brother). Vitamin A, D, E and K are the vitamins soluble in fat.]

SPM Biology Form 4 Notes – Nutrition (Part V)

Vitamin Cod oil

Vitamin Cod oil


  • It is a group of complex organic compounds that are needed in small quantities by living organisms because vitamins can be reused in body metabolisms.
  • Vitamins do not provide energy to body metabolism and vitamins are non-protein organic compounds.
  • Living organisms cannot synthesise vitamins.
  • Vitamins can be only obtained from diet.
  • It is essential to maintenance of good health, normal growth and efficient metabolism.
  • There are two categories in vitamins: fat-soluble vitamins and water-soluble vitamins.

Fat-soluble Vitamins

Types of Vitamins Sources Functions Effect of deficiency
A (retinol) Milk, carrots, tomatoes, eggs, fish oil, green vegetables, butter - Builds visual pigments on retina for night vision

- Immunity

- Growth of epithelial cells

- Antioxidant

- Build body resistance to diseases

- Night blindness

- Xerophthalmia (cornea becomes dry)

- Scaly skin

D (calciferol) Formed (skin) during the presence of sunlight, fish liver oil, egg yolk, cheese - Enhances absorption of calcium and phosphorus

- Build strong bones and healthy teeth

- Rickets (weak bones)

- Osteomalacia (softening of bones)

E (tocopherol) Palm oil, cereals, nuts, green vegetables, olive oil, milk- - Preserves healthy muscular system, blood circulatory (red blood cells) and nervous system

- Antioxidant

- Maintain healthy function of the reproduction system

- Premature aging

- Low fertility

- Slow wound healing

K (phylloquinone) Green vegetable, totatoes - Helps in blood clotting - Detective blood clotting

- Anaemia

The next post, Part 6 on the short series of notes on Nutrition for SPM Biology Form 4 student by Berry Berry Easy will continue on the sub-topic of vitamin with emphasis being given on water-soluble vitamins. So do read on.

Previous post:

Next post: