SPM Biology Form 4 Notes – Nutrition (Part VI)

by BerryBerryTeacher

in Berry Reference (Notes)

Water-soluble vitamins are vitamins that are soluble in water. While it sounds obvious but its implication is large. Because it is water-soluble, it has to be replaced daily as the body does not store them or absorbed in the fat globules. Since it is replaced daily, you will need to ingest them on a daily basis. Typical source of B-complex vitamins are found in cereal, egg, fish legume, meat, milk, poultry and others. While Vitamin C can naturally be found in fruits (citrus based are the best as most Berry Readers would already know from young).

So, let’s think again, what the implication of water-soluble vitamin means? It also means that these vitamins can potentially be washed away during the preparation of food or even during storage due to its solubility in water. So it is very different from the fat-soluble vitamins learnt in the earlier post. As you would have guessed it, this post, Part 6 of notes on Nutrition for SPM Form 4 Biology student from Berry Berry Easy is all about water-soluble vitamins.

[Tips: For those who wonder how fat-soluble is stored in the body. Vitamin "ADEK" as mentioned in the previous post is fat-soluble, in which they are absorbed in chylomicrons which moves through the lymphatic system of small intestines, followed by circulation in the blood stream and finally stored in body tissues. (This also implies the importance of fat in our body. So do not remove too much fat from your body until you are unhealthy.

As a health tip, make sure you don't ingest too much fat-soluble vitamins, as they can be stored in your body. A condition called hypervitaminosis can occur if you have too much vitamin stored in your body, and that condition is potentially harmful to your body. So remember that, moderation is the best way to go in life.]

SPM Biology Form 4 Notes – Nutrition (Part VI)

Cod fish oil

Cod fish oil

Water-soluble Vitamins

Types of Vitamins Sources Functions Effect of deficiency
B1 (thiamine) Milk, legumens, wheatgerm, yeast extract, nuts, whole grains - Precursor of a coenzyme
- Coenzyme for carbohydrates metabolisme
- Beri-beri (muscle weakness, nerve disorder)

- Fatigue

B2 (riboflavin) Milk, wheatgerm, liver, eggs - Component of coenzyme
- Healthy nervous system
- Sore eyes

- Skin lesions at the corner of mouth, nose and ears

- Inflammation of tongue and lips

B3 (niacin) Liver, rice, legumes, fish, yeast extract - Component of coenzyme

- Healthy nervous system, skin and intestines

- Pellagra (skin and gastrointestinal lesions)
B5 (pantothenic acid) Fish, egg yolk, liver, meat - Component of coenzyme for carbohydrates, protein and fatty acids metabolism - Muscle cramps

- Fatigue

- Grey hair

- Low immunity

B6 (pyridoxine) Fish, liver, milk, potatoes - Coenzyme in amino acid metabolism

- For red blood cell formation

- Kidney stone

- Muscular twitching

- Diarrhea

B9 (folic acid) Green vegetables - For DNA and RNA

- For red blood cells formation

- Regulating the function of iron

- Miscarriage birth

- Cleft lips

- Limb defects of babies

B12 (cobalamin) Cheese, milk, egg, meat - Coenzyme in nucleic acid metabolism
- For red blood cells formation
- Pernicious anaemia

- Neurological disorders

H (biotin) Legumes, vegetables - Coenzyme in the synthesis of fat, glycogen and amino acid - Nausea

- Fatigue

- Muscular pains

C (ascorbic acid) Orange, tomatoes, broccoli, cauliflower - Fats and protein metabolism
- Energy production
- Scurvy (bleeding gums and bruised skin)

This is the end of Part 6 of notes for SPM Biology on Nutrition. Do read on the other berry essential notes from Berry Berry Easy. Stay healthy too, take your vitamin but don’t go overboard by having an overdose of vitamins.

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October 18, 2011
August 12, 2012

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